Resources

FEVE Architectural Coatings: High Performance Coatings for Expansive, Sustainable Design

Course number: AGC09D
1 AIA HSW/LU CE Hour

Independence Library and Apartments, John Ronan Architects, James Florio

In this one-hour course, we will discover the strengths and advantages of FEVE fluoropolymer topcoats. We will evaluate coating performance tests including accelerated weathering and real-time weathering and what the implications are for the life of different coatings. We will explore the many design possibilities that FEVE technology provides and assess the sustainability benefits of FEVE topcoats despite their higher initial cost compared to other topcoat formulations.

Powder and Liquid FEVE Coatings for Curtain Wall & Infrastructure Applications

Course number: AGC09F
1 AIA HSW/LU CE Hour

45 Fremont Center, San Francisco, CA, Shorenstein Company, McGinnis Chen Associates, Rainbow Waterproofing Restoration, Tnemec, Lumiflon

Discover the strengths and advantages of FEVE fluoropolymer topcoats for bridges and curtain walls, as well as maintenance re-coating of existing finishes. Evaluation of coating performance tests including accelerated weathering and real-time weathering and what the implications are for the life of different coatings. Assessment of the life-cycle cost advantage and sustainability benefits of FEVE topcoats despite their higher initial cost compared to other topcoat formulations.

Advantages of FEVE Fluoropolymer Topcoats for New and Existing Bridges

Course number: AGC09E
1 AIA HSW/LU CE Hour

Blue Bridge, Grand Rapids, Tnemec Fluoronar, FEVE Resin, Lumiflon

Identify FEVE fluoropolymer resin bridge coatings and review incentives for specifying FEVE industrial maintenance coatings for bridges in terms of performance, application, and maintenance. Review of real-time and accelerated testing history of FEVE coatings that demonstrate its proven performance and quantify life-cycle benefits of FEVE coating for bridges.

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Advantages (17)

We have seen greater gloss retention and better cracking resistance in accelerated UV exposures – both QUV-A and Xenon Arc weatherometers.

It depends on what is expected during the life of the coating. FEVE coatings are superior in gloss retention and color retention. Coated structures in Japan still display good gloss and color retention after 28 years. It is estimated that these coatings will last 60 years before the structure needs to be recoated. If FEVE coatings are used in combination with the appropriate primers, they should have the same life expectancy for ample corrosion protection.

FEVE coatings have been used to coat concrete structures successfully. The main purpose of FEVE coatings on concrete is both protection and long-term appearance. However, when you mention “loss of adhesion”, FEVE coatings cannot correct this problem if it is caused by improper surface preparation or a recurring moisture problem of the concrete itself.

Yes.  FEVE based coatings require no special or unusual surface preparation compared to conventional or traditional coatings sytems.

Specifically the durability of FEVE compared to perfluorinated fluoroacrylate emulsions and are there any issues with PFOA or PFOS with the FEVE resins?

Our weathering studies show superior performance of fluorinated resins compared to other coating resins. The durability of FEVE resins to other fluorinated resins is comparable.  The difference is seen in the high gloss achieved with FEVE resins and the ability of FEVE resin based coatings to be cured at ambient conditions. FEVE resins have no issues with PFOA or PFOS.

FEVE resins are hydroxyl functional, allowing them to be used in 2K crosslinked systems. They also are curable at ambient temperatures so they can be applied outside of a factory for applications like bridge repair. Finally, the FEVE chemistry yields coatings with high gloss levels upwards of 90 degrees (measured at a 60o angle).

Most markets have cost restraints and the architectural paint market is one such market. To address this, we have studied our water based resins in blended systems, typically with industry standard acrylic polyols. We have tested down to levels of 2.5% FEVE resin. We have seen in improvements in accelerated weathering and water resistance. FEVE resins can be used in brushable paints that are common in the architectural paint market.

Yes. We have tested the water based and solvent borne FEVE resins for stain resistance. We see excellent resistance to staining from mustard, red wine, coffee to motor oil and vegetable oil.

FEVE based coatings have been shown to be easier to clean than conventional coatings. These coatings are also highly chemical resistant. These properties suggest that an FEVE based coating will maintain longevity after graffiti removal.

Gloss retention is a measure of coating durability. As a coating degrades, the surface becomes rough and the gloss decreases. A coating that withstands this degradation will retain its gloss.

There are many ways to compare these two coating types. The fact that that you can field apply the FEVE-based coatings is a big advantage over the PVDF-based coatings.

FEVE coatings may enhance anti-graffiti paint formulations. The formulations usually contain other ingredients to boost the anti-graffiti properties

FEVE polymers are non-hazardous; however, some resins may contain hazardous carrier solvents. Please refer to the MSDS.

FEVE polymers are non-hazardous; however, some resins may contain hazardous carrier solvents. Please refer to the MSDS.

2K FEVE is comparable to other conventional 2K systems.

FEVE resins are advantageous because they can be field applied. The solvent based products can be used in many industrial and OEM applications also. The water based products are useful in field applications and are appropriate for applications requiring low VOC.

The ultra-weatherability of LUMIFLON resins is the reason for their popularity in many exterior coating applications. This question of why they work so well is frequent among our potential customers. The outstanding weatherability of FEVE-based coatings is attributable to the high bond energy of the carbon-fluorine bond. These carbon-flourine bonds have the capability to absorb much greater amounts of UV energy and will keep this energy from affecting the weaker bonds/ linkages in the LUMIFLON polymer structure. This means that it is difficult for the UV energy to generate free radicals in FEVE resins, the method by which degradation of coatings by UV energy is propagated.

Knowing this, you can see why the presence of the fluorine bonds needs to be equally spread out along the polymer backbone so as to insure protection of the entire backbone. The alternating structure created in all of the LUMIFLON resins – every fluoroethylene monomer segment sandwiched between the vinyl ether monomer segments – makes the achievement of a 30-60 year coating attainable.

The laboratory testing of this property is quite extensive. For the accelerated weathering in the laboratory, we utilize the QUV Weatherometer and the Xenon Arc Weatherometer. For the long term outside exposure, we send test panels to both South Florida testing sites and to Arizona testing sites for the EMMAQUA exposure (EMMAQUA stands for “Equatorial Mount with Mirrors for Acceleration with Water”). We also monitor actual LUMIFLON coating applications on structures as they age.

Aesthetics (8)

We have not tested reflective pigments in FEVE coatings.  We have tested glass microspheres and saw no issues with incorporation.

We have had customers tell us that coatings with FEVE have improved cleanability. Due to the alternating chemistry of the polymer, it does not have the extremely low surface energy that you would see with a neat fluoropolymer. Because of this it is not anti-graffitti by itself. An additive would be needed for that.

When recoating an FEVE coating no special treatment is required compared to any conventional coating system. Depending on the age of the coating to be recoated, some surface prep may be required as might be needed in any coating system.

FEVE coatings provide excellent color retention when high performance pigments are used. Sometimes a color changes due to gloss reduction. FEVE resin-based coatings retain their gloss for a long time, so this situation does not occur.

Mineral and wax matting agents have been tested. Awareness of CPVC is helpful in optimizing performance properties when adding inorganic solids.

We use a BYK micro-gloss meter.

The refractive index of an FEVE clearcoat formulation is 1.43. Since the refractive index of both glass and clear acrylic is 1.51, the FEVE coating is considered to be optically clear.

The superior weatherability of the LUMIFLON resin family has been proven over the years by extensive lab testing and countless exterior structures that have been coated with these products. The LUMIFLON resin component plays a big part in protecting itself and other resin components from the destructive UV rays of the sun. However, this protection has limitations when it comes to protecting the pigments in the formulation. The proper pigment choice will insure good color retention. If it is possible to use inorganic pigments to achieve the target color of your formulation, use them. When choosing organic pigments, choose those pigments that boast a high degree of light fastness. It is important to keep in mind that pigments which are mediocre performers when exposed to sunlight will always be mediocre performers – even in LUMIFLON resin-based formulations. They will still need the help of UV absorbers and hindered amine light stabilizers. The protection from UV degradation courtesy of the LUMIFLON resin for these organic additives has yet to be determined. However, the increased longevity of the coating film will keep these additives from eroding out of the film.

Applications (18)

FEVE based coatings can be used over steel. Typically, the FEVE resin would be part of the protective topcoat that is applied over a primer or possibly a primer and mid-coat.

Yes. We have tested FEVE resins in wood coatings. Formulations based on FEVE resins have shown significant improvement in water resistance after natural weathering.

2K epoxy coatings.  LF has excellent adhesion to all epoxy coatings when the epoxies are coated during their recoat window time.

Yes it can. However, a fully cured FEVE coating needs to have some surface preparation. The SSPC-SP 3 preparation method is recommended. This is identical to the preparation used for recoating fully cured polyurethane coatings.

Yes. However, if the PVF film is still in place, it should be removed. Any adhesive remaining on the FRP substrate should also be removed prior to coating. A primer may be required to ensure good adhesion between the FEVE coating and the FRP. It is best to do a test patch on the FRP and check for proper adhesion.

FEVE Coatings, both solvent-based and water-based types, can be directly applied to concrete surfaces that are fully cured, which is typically 28 days after installation. However, concrete surfaces are very porous and will absorb a high percentage of the coating applied to bare concrete. Since the main function of FEVE coatings is a weatherable finish and these coatings are higher in cost than conventional concrete finishes, we recommend the use of a primer-sealer as the first coat on bare concrete.

Yes. Transparent or clear coats can be formulated with FEVE resins.

Yes. FEVE powder resins are typically applied by electrostatic spray.

Yes. FEVE based coatings can be recoated. Of course, proper surface preparation is always important.

No. FEVE resins are similar to conventional coating resins in their use and application.

FEVE based coatings are ideal for topcoat applications. The superior protection of a coatings system is realized this way. FEVE based coatings protect basecoats and mid coats.

FEVE based coatings can be used in this application. Repair/recoat would be similar to traditional paint systems. Sand-blasting is a good form of surface prep; however, it is not absolutely necessary for FEVE based coatings. FEVE-based coatings are recoatable.

FEVE resins can be used in paints for this application. Patching of an FEVE based coating would be no different than patching a traditional coating.

We have been testing one-component FEVE-based coatings on wood substrates.These are different than the isocyanate-catalyzed two-component coatings.

Personal protection will be no different than with traditional solventborne coatings that are catalyzed with an isocyanate.

FEVE are unique amongst fluorinated resins because they can be formulated like any other typical organic resin. Because FEVE resins can be formulated into traditional coating systems no special application techniques are required.

The only detriment to the use of FEVE resins in coatings is their cost.

FEVE coatings can be field applied at typical ambiemt temperatures. The waterbased systems need to be applied at temperatures above freezing.

Corrosion (17)

ASTM G85 is another salt fog test called Prohesion. A modified version of this test cycles between salt fog exposure and QUV exposure. Some have suggested that prohesion yields results more comparable to real world exposure.

Yes. This work is underway currently. 

Yes. We tested Sulfuric Acid at 50% in a 1 hour spot test. We also tested 10% Sulfuric Acid in a 30 day immersion test. We saw passing results in both tests.

Yes. Proper preparation of the substrate is critical for long term performance.

FEVE based coatings are currently being used on concrete substrates submerged in water.

FEVE is the most UV durable resin available. It is best to use this in the topcoat to get optimal benefits.

These coatings have been applied to structures in all types of climate conditions, some more severe than the Northeast USA.

The UV resistance of FEVE resins is not dependent on crosslinking.

Yes. QUV-B, Xenon Arc, and South Florida have been performed. The results showed that FEVE based powder coatings had greater than 95% gloss retention after 3500hrs QUV-B, greater than 99% gloss retention after 6000hrs Xenon Arc, and greater than 60% gloss retention after 10 years South Florida.

Yes. Coatings formulated with FEVE resins show improved resistance to sulfuric acid.

FEVE resins exhibit little to no absorption in the UVA and UVB range. The key to formulating durable coatings with FEVE resins is to protect the components that are sensitive to these wavelength ranges, i.e. organic pigments, titanium dioxide, certain resin chemistries. It is recommended that triazine type UV absorbers and hindered amine light stabilizers (HALS) be used in coatings with FEVE resins in order to achieve maximum durability.

We have not tested FEVE resins for automotive structural components. We are doing corrosion testing.

Surface prep is no different than is required in conventional systems

If the previous coating was not high in silicone content, then power washing to remove dirt and any mold is best.  If there is silicone content, sand blasting may be needed to rough up the surface to provide for optimal adhesion.  It is never recommended to coat over rust.  Rust on the surface will prevent proper adhesion allowing an avenue for moisture intrusion.  This will propagate the rust formation.

Aluminum is protected from corrosion in large part by the thin oxide layer that forms on it or it is pretreated.  However, pitting corrosion and localized corrosion can occur (typically seen in alloys of aluminum).  In order to protect against this it is important to use a system with good adhesion to the aluminum substrate.  Typically this will require the use of some type of primer or pretreatment.  The finish coat should have excellent resistance to UV degradation and water.  In extreme situations anti-corrosion additives may be used.

This is a question that is often asked by potential customers for LUMIFLON resins. They wonder how much protection is provided by a LUMIFLON resin for the other ingredients in the formulation – namely colored pigments and other non-fluorinated resins. In my experience, the protection that a LUMIFLON resin will give to other ingredients is hard to measure. I have noticed that organic pigments that are sensitive to UV degradation also need UV absorbers in the formulation to protect them from losing their color. Whether or not these UV absorbers are given additional protection from degradation by the presence of a LUMIFLON resin has yet to be determined. As far as protection for non-fluorinated resins, there seems to be some credence to the proclamation that these resins will perform better in the presence of LUMIFLON resins. I have tested formulations containing only 20% of the total binder as a LUMIFLON resin and have seen dramatic differences in both gloss retention and also the condition of the paint film after extensive UV exposure. However, it is important to understand that LUMIFLON resins cannot prevent UV radiation from penetrating through a film that is composed of LUMIFLON resins. UV absorbers are necessary to stop this penetration in clearcoat formulations. Otherwise, the UV radiation can deteriorate the substrate beneath the clearcoat and cause delamination of the coating.

The ultra-weatherability of LUMIFLON resins is the reason for their popularity in many exterior coating applications. This question of why they work so well is frequent among our potential customers. The outstanding weatherability of FEVE-based coatings is attributable to the high bond energy of the carbon-fluorine bond. These carbon-flourine bonds have the capability to absorb much greater amounts of UV energy and will keep this energy from affecting the weaker bonds/ linkages in the LUMIFLON polymer structure. This means that it is difficult for the UV energy to generate free radicals in FEVE resins, the method by which degradation of coatings by UV energy is propagated.

Knowing this, you can see why the presence of the fluorine bonds needs to be equally spread out along the polymer backbone so as to insure protection of the entire backbone. The alternating structure created in all of the LUMIFLON resins – every fluoroethylene monomer segment sandwiched between the vinyl ether monomer segments – makes the achievement of a 30-60 year coating attainable.

The laboratory testing of this property is quite extensive. For the accelerated weathering in the laboratory, we utilize the QUV Weatherometer and the Xenon Arc Weatherometer. For the long term outside exposure, we send test panels to both South Florida testing sites and to Arizona testing sites for the EMMAQUA exposure (EMMAQUA stands for “Equatorial Mount with Mirrors for Acceleration with Water”). We also monitor actual LUMIFLON coating applications on structures as they age.

Life Cycle Cost (5)

We have observed on real world structures that it lasts for ~30 years. We are estimating it could last upwards of 60 years based on the low level of degradation seen after 30 years as well as accelerated weathering test data. This is an extrapolation.

By testing coatings that contained FEVE resins, both in laboratory settings and in real life exposures, we extrapolated the perfromance to this period of time. The formulation plays a big part in the longevity.

What we say is that coatings formulated with these FEVE resins CAN attain a lifetime of 30-60 years. The coating manufacturers decide themselves what type of warranty they want to write.

The material drives cost much more than application. Work is underway to optimize performance and production efficiency with cost.

Coatings based on LUMIFLON have successfully passed exposure testing of 20 years.  We have a case study of a bridge coated in Japan in 1986 that still looks great after 27 years.  Analytical testing, based on the degradation rate of the LUMIFLON,  predicts lifetimes nearing 100 years until full coating erosion. The key to this performance is proper formulation of the LUMIFLON coating.  This requires the use of the most durable raw materials, especially TiO2 as well as formulating at optimum PVC. 

Products (7)

There are several prominent coatings manufacturers who fabricate these coatings in the USA. They are all active in AIA activities, specifically the trade shows. However, because of the higher cost of FEVE coatings, these manufacturers will only use qualified applicators to minimize the probability of errors.

LUMIFLON LF810 is a resin based on FEVE technology. This technology has excellent resistance to UV light degradation. Formulations made with LUMIFLON LF810 are superior choices for exterior applications where UV light exposure is a concern.

Coatings made with LF810 can be used in a variety of applications covering many markets. Some examples include wood varnishes, deck stains, and metal railings.

No. LUMIFLON LF810 can be formulated like any other solventborne resin.

No. LUMIFLON LF810 does not require driers or catalysts.

LUMIFLON LF810 is used as a resin in coatings. It can be used alone or blended with other resins such as acrylics and alkyds. It has low OH functionality and therefore is an excellent choice for 1K coatings.

LUMIFLON LF810 is a fluorinated resin utilizing FEVE technology. It is supplied at 45% solids in Mineral Spirits. Another version, LF810Y is supplied in Xylene.

Properties (51)

It is a hot and humid climate, just like South Florida. The average amount of UV radiation is actually slightly stronger in Okinawa than in the South Florida exposure sites.

The temperature resistance of FEVE resins ranges from about 450 to 500oF.

The softening points range from 90-120oC (194 to 248oF).

PTFE is considered a true fluoropolymer while FEVE resins are alternating copolymers of vinyl ether and fluoroethylene monomers. PTFE coatings offer the ultimate in barrier and protective properties, but they are limited by application. They tend to require high heat to cure and also are traditionally only available in powder form. FEVE offers the high performance of a fluoropolymer with the usability of a traditional resin for paint. The vinyl ether portion of the copolymer allows for solubility in solvents and the regularly alternating structure insures that the fluoroethylene performs. PTFE coatings are ideal for extremely harsh environments, like pipe linings. FEVE resins are best suited for applications requiring high performance in outdoor environments while maintaining aesthetics like high gloss and brilliant color.

We do not recommend grinding in the FEVE dispersion, but a water pigment paste can be made and added to the FEVE portion of the paint. We have also seen good compatibility with off the shelf liquid colorants. Matting agents can be used with FEVE resins, but we are just beginning our work in this area though. One of the attractive characteristics of our resins is high gloss, which is uncommon amongst many fluorinated resins for paint.

FEVE resins are not UV blockers. However, they do resist degradation and erosion initiated by UV light. This prevents loss of additives like fungicides due to erosion of the coating.

Adhesion properties of the solventborne FEVE resins are good up to and beyond 50% of the total resin solids of the coating. Only some of the waterbased resins are recommended to blended at levels of 50% or less.

10000 hours QUV-A is considered a relatively long aging period. It has been related to up to 10 years in the field. QUV-A has limitations though. Its spectrum is focused at 340nm whereas sunlight has a much broader range of wavelengths. QUV-A is useful for screening purposes but is no substitute for real world exposure.

FEVE based coatings have been used in applications that maintained color and gloss for over 30 years. This longevity will decrease in blended systems (i.e. FEVE resin blended with an acrylic).

FEVE emulsions and dispersions are non-hazardous. The solvent based products pose safety risks based on that of the carrier solvent (xylene in most cases). FEVE polyols can be reacted with polyisocyanates and amino crosslinkers. Both types of crosslinkers have hazards associated with them.

HEUR type thickeners have been used successfully with FEVE emulsions.

This application is currently being studied. FEVE emulsions have a good balance of moisture properties: resistant to water, but permeable to vapor. This allows for proper drying of the cement.

FEVE emulsions have a minimum of 1 year shelf stability unopened.

Coatings based on FEVE resin technology show very low water absorption, but do not inhibit permeability. FEVE based coatings, including blends of FEVE and low Tg acrylic resins, show high resistance to water absorption but are breathable.

Softening points of solid LUMIFLON Resins range from 117-136o C.

Yes. UVA and HALS may be used in FEVE based coatings. The liquid versions are easiest to blend. It is also important to use less basic HALS in waterbased coatings.

The chemistry is completely different; however, both are protective against corrosion. FEVE works though by withstanding degradation by UV radiation. This allows it to protect the other protective layers of paint below it- including corrosion resistant or sacrificial primers.

Yes. This is an alternating copolymer. The fluoroethylene monomers and vinyl ether monomers are polymerized via radical polymerization. The resulting bonds between the two are covalent in nature.

It depends on the grade of FEVE resin that is used. If more flexibility is necessary, KFLEX polyester resins can help increase this property.

yes. We ae looking at alternative functionalities, but the cost is very prohibitive at this time.

FEVE polyols can be used as the sole polyol in a 2K urethane system or it can be blended with other polyols such as acrylics and polyesters.

FEVE polyols have all primary hydroxyls. It is very reactive and tends to require significantly less catalyst than a traditional or acrylic or polyester polyol would require.

Yes.

Organic or inorganic zinc-rich primers

Yes. We have done several blending studies with polyesters, acrylics, and alkyds.

FEVE polyols can be used as the sole polyol in a 2K urethane system or it can be blended with other polyols such as acrylics and polyesters.

Solids vary from 40 to 100% solids depending on the grade.

FEVE polyols have all primary hydroxyls. It is very reactive and tends to require significantly less catalyst than a traditional or acrylic or polyester polyol would require.

Waterbased FEVE resins are non-hazardous. Solventborne FEVE resins require ventilation as does any solventborne resin or coating because of the hazards of the carrier solvent itself.

FEVE resin chemistry has a relatively low level of fluorination compared to typical fluorinated resins. It is able to achieve the same if not superior exterior durability due to its unique chemistry. The alternating structure of fluoroethylene and vinyl ether segments is the key to its performance.

Different grades of FEVE resins are available. Some have sufficient hydroxyl values for crosslinking while others do not. Those with low hydroxyl values can be used in ambient cure systems without crosslinking. A high gloss coating can be achieved with these systems

Organic coatings based on FEVE resins can resist temperatures between 400-450oF.

Amino crosslinkers or melamine resins can be used in 2K systems with FEVE resins. These systems are used in baking applications.

Yes. Coatings based on FEVE resins have shown greater than 60% gloss retention after 10 years exposure in South Florida.

QUV-B has been performed. The results vary depending on the system but systems containing FEVE resins have shown greater than 80% gloss retention after 12000 hours QUV-B exposure.

There are solvent grades with low OH functionality allowing them to be used in 1K air dry systems.

The cure temperatures depend on the application. Many of the 2K systems can be cured at room temperature but can be baked as required by the application. We recommend not exceeding 450F.

Most FEVE resins contain hydroxyl functionality and can be crosslinked with amino resins.

We have not seen reactivity issues.

We have not performed these tests.

Yes. Films with a thickness between 1-3 mils are typical

We have not done specific work on high and low pH chemical exposures. We have done chemical resistance testing of popular acids and bases and that information is available.

The solvent and water based products can be applied at room temperature or with heat depending on what the application requires. These products can be used up to about 450F.

A catalyst is necessary for the ambient curing of FEVE resins. The most popular at this time is Dibutyltin Dilaurate. The level of catalyst is much lower than standard 2K polyurethane formulations. The suggested starting point for a standard formulation is 0.0005% based on total resin solids.

FEVE coatings have been used in coil coating finishes for many years. By using a blocked isocyanate and an ample catalyst amount in the formulation, cure speeds necessary for the coatings successful performance in the coil coating application process can be attained.

AGC Research in Japan has been working on new FEVE resin products with different functionalities than hydroxyl groups. The latest development product is a silanol-functional FEVE resin, which eliminates the use of isocyanates as the crosslinker of choice for ambient-cured FEVE coatings.

This is an interesting question that pops up from time to time. The reputation of fluoropolymers as non-stick coatings will make any curious coatings formulator ponder about the adhesion properties of LUMIFLON resins. It is important to remember that the chemical structure of the solvent-based LUMIFLON resins is such that they possess properties that are foreign to pure fluoropolymers – the ability to be dissolved in a wide range of solvents, the ability to achieve a high gloss, etc. These modifications of the resin structure will also improve its ability to adhere to a variety of substrates without the use of special primers or exotic additives in the formulation. Of course, the adhesion properties can be limited when it comes to the traditionally difficult surfaces to coat – especially hard, glossy substrates. It is always prudent to check a coating’s adhesion to any potential substrate before signing off on the formulation.

Having told that story, the water-based LUMIFLON FE emulsion products are a different story altogether. Due to the component and processing changes necessary to create stable emulsions with this type of hybrid fluoropolymer, the adhesion of these resins is compromised. In order to formulate a water-based 1K coating with adequate adhesion to metal substrates, these emulsions have to be blended with the conventional water-based emulsions (most popularly, the acrylic type) used in coatings for this market. The maximum percentage of LUMIFLON emulsion recommended as part of the total binder in the formulation is 50%.

As far as the 2K water-based LUMIFLON dispersion resin, our FD1000 product falls somewhere between the solvent-based resins and the emulsion resins. Again, it is important to check the adhesion performance during the creation of the formulations and to utilize appropriate additives to insure proper substrate wetting and proper surface tension reduction in the coating.

Two component polyurethane finishes will cure as quickly as the hydroxyl groups and the isocyanate groups react with each other and form a crosslinked matrix. The speed of these reactions depends on several things – temperature, accessibility of the one functional group to the other, and the amount of catalyst in the formulation. Catalysts are an important ingredient, as they allow the formulator to fine tune their formulation so that the speed of dry is as fast as desired but not so fast as to burden the applicator. The standard rule of thumb level of the dibutyltin dilaurate catalyst, an industry standard since the emergence of this technology, is 0.005% (based on total resin solids). However, it is a common mistake to assume that all polyols behave the same during this curing/crosslinking process. LUMIFLON polyols are no exception. When choosing the level of catalyst for your LUMIFLON formulation, I would start at a catalyst level that is 0.0005% (based on resin solids) and adjust it if necessary to meet the pot life expectations of your customer. If you are working with non-tin catalysts, make sure you start at the lowest recommended level and adjust from that point. Also, I would run a stability test on your finished formulation to make sure that the catalyst of choice will not seed out or lose its effectiveness as the coating ages. AGC Chemicals will work with our customers to choose the right catalyst for their specific application.

This is a question that comes across my desk every now and then. Most of the manufacturing plants for coatings have a stock number of raw materials that are included in the majority of formulations they manufacture on a regular basis. These are the raw materials that will be chosen for any new formulation if the formulation requires that type of ingredient. I have no problem with this approach when it comes to constructing a starting point formulation for a LUMIFLON-based coating. Bringing in a whole new inventory of raw materials for a small percentage of a plant’s production will not sit very well with the production staff and the purchasing agents. However, I will not promise that there won’t be surprises when some standard ingredients and/or typical amounts are employed in LUMIFLON-based coatings. For these coatings, it is always wise to assume nothing. Thorough laboratory testing for compatibility and long term stability are necessary to insure that your formulation won’t disappoint the customer in the field. In addition, AGCCA’s technical service laboratory in Exton, PA is creating new formulations every day – finding out what works and what doesn’t work. We are only a phone call or email away.

Since we have often referred to LUMIFLON resins as polyols, most paint chemists naturally assume that every formulation that uses a LUMIFLON resin needs to be a 2 component coating. Actually, there are three types of coating formulations that can be created which are one-component in nature.

The first is a traditional baking finish that can employ either an amino resin as the crosslinker or a blocked isocyanate performing this same duty. This opens the door for the formulation modification of standard resin systems which will add an increased level of weatherability to the finish. These coatings will also showed improvement in chemical resistance.

The second type is your typical water-based air-dry emulsion coating that has found its way into numerous markets since its inception in the late 1940s. There are 2 LUMIFLON emulsions that can take part in these formulations – FE4300 and FE4400. Their mechanism for forming a film is identical to the other emulsion types that reside in the coatings for these markets – coalescing of the emulsion particles with organic solvents. Depending on the market that has been targeted, these LUMIFLON emulsions have also shown a good level of compatibility with all types of acrylic emulsions.

The third type of one-component coating which can be formulated is a solvent-based air dry lacquer or an oxidizing alkyd-type coating. The LF810 resin is a higher molecular weight polymer that is available in solution form. Again, this resin can be used as a modifying polymer which will boost the weatherability of these formulations. Both pigmented finishes and clearcoats can be made, depending on what market area is targeted. It is, however, important to remember that LUMIFLON resins cannot absorb UV energy. In order to protect the substrate of a clearcoat finish, UV absorbers must be in the formulation.

Most formulators recognize the LUMIFLON resin family as a family of fluoropolymers. However, that description is only part of the complete story. A better definition for LUMIFLON resins is that they are “hybrid” fluoropolymers. In order to build in the properties necessary for the creation of resins that are user-friendly, AGC selected vinyl ethers as comonomers for the chlorotrifluoroethylene monomers, which pass on the ability to solvate these resins in a wide variety of commercial solvents. In addition, these vinyl ether comonomers contain hydroxyl groups, which add functionality to these resins. The final product is a fluoropolymer resin that functions the same as a polyol and can be used in 2 component ambient-cure coatings that utilize isocyanates as the crosslinking resin component.

Now, because of the vinyl ether presence, typical properties connected to the standard fluoropolymers like polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) or ethylenetetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) are somewhat diminished with the LUMIFLON resins. However, they do exhibit strong weatherability characteristics and above average chemical resistance properties. And, because this marriage of fluorinated monomers and vinyl ether monomers is successful, high gloss properties can be realized. Lastly, the LUMIFLON resins also show a wide range of compatibility with both acrylic and polyester polyols. This will allow for the engineering of paint formulations to specific physical properties like increased flexibility and abrasion resistance.

Sustainability (4)

VOC levels less than 50g/L are achievable when using LUMIFLON flake grades dissolved in exempt solvents.

FEVE technology can be formulated into environmentally friendly coatings. Solid resins are available for use with VOC-exempt solvents. Waterborne resins are also available for use in water-based coating formulations.

LEED credits are sometimes disguised in certain building construction or building remodeling practices. When researching the categories within the “LEED Existing Building Guidelines Manual” several catergories show possibilities for the use of FEVE coatings to get LEED credits:

1) Sustainable Sites
SS Credit 2: Building Exterior & Hardscape Management Plan
SS Credit 7.1: Heat Island Reduction – Non-Roof

2) Energy and Atmosphere
EA Credit 1: Optimize Energy Efficiency Performance

3) Materials and Resources
MR Credit 3: Sustainable Purchasing – Facility Alterations and Additions

4) Innovations and Operations
IO Credit 1: Innovative Changes to Building (LEED-type goal)
IO Credit 3: Documenting Sustainable Building Cost Impacts

Several formulations have been created that have a VOC of zero. These formulations use VOC exempt solvents to achieve this status. Currently, we are looking at 2K water-based FEVE systems which have no solvent in the formulations. To date, we have had positive results with these formulations. In addition, we are testing the “extremely-low VOC” coalescing solvents with our FEVE emulsions in 1K architectural coatings.